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Two five-item ethical position scales were created. One assessed ethical views toward the expected consequences of an action (or teleology). The other assessed views toward the need to follow a specific rule (or deontology), with an emphasis on secular rationalism. The ethical consequences scale included the positions of egoism and utilitarianism, which consider personal and social consequences, respectively. The ethical rules scale included the positions of justice and rights, which consider rules leading to just treatment and preservation of individual rights, respectively.
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