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Given time and frequency differences of arrival measurements, the authors estimate the position and velocity of an emitter by jointly eliminating non-linear nuisance parameters with an orthogonal projection matrix. Although simulation results show that this estimator does not always perform as well as the two-step estimator, the benefit is its computational simplicity. Whereas the complexity of the two-step estimator increases cubically with respect to the number of sensors, the complexity of the proposed estimator increases quadratically.
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