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The last decade has seen a deluge of proposals for supporting multicast in the Internet. These proposals can be categorized as either infrastructure-based, with the multicast functionality provided by specialized network nodes, or host-based, with the multicast functionality provided by the members of the multicast group itself. In this paper, authors present the design and evaluation of a hybrid multicast architecture wherein the infrastructure provides packet forwarding, and the end-hosts implement the control plane. End-hosts build multicast trees by setting up forwarding state in the infrastructure. This division of functionality enables the architecture to combine the efficiency of infrastructure-based solutions and the flexibility and deployability of host-based solutions. They present scalable and efficient algorithms for distributed tree construction and maintenance, and for reliable packet delivery.
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