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In the last years, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have gained increasing attention from both the research community and actual users. As sensor nodes are generally battery-powered devices, the critical aspects to face concern how to reduce the energy consumption of nodes, so that the network lifetime can be extended to reasonable times. This paper first break down the energy consumption for the components of a typical sensor node, and discuss the main directions to energy conservation in WSNs. Then, the author presents a systematic and comprehensive taxonomy of the energy conservation schemes, which are subsequently discussed in depth.
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