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In this paper, the authors consider the energy efficiency of truncated Hybrid-ARQ (HARQ) protocols in a single-user link (i.e., non-collaborative HARQ), or with the inclusion of a relay station (i.e., collaborative HARQ). The total energy consumption accounts for both the transmission energy and the energy consumed by the transmitting and receiving electronic circuitry of all involved terminals (source, destination and, possibly, the relay). Using the transmission time and transmission energy of each packet as optimization variables, the overall energy is minimized under an outage probability constraint for HARQ Type I, HARQ Chase Combining and HARQ Incremental Redundancy protocols (in the latter case, a tight lower bound is considered).
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