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In this paper, the authors have considered the optimization of the M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (MQAM) constellation size to minimize the bit energy consumption under average Bit Error Rate (BER) constraints. In the computation of the energy expenditure, the circuit, transmission, and retransmission energies are taken into account. A combined log-normal shadowing and Rayleigh fading model is employed to model the wireless channel. The link reliabilities and retransmission probabilities are determined through the outage probabilities under log-normal shadowing effects. Both single-hop and multi-hop transmissions are considered.
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