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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has a profound impact on the economy and the environment. A study estimated that the Internet equipment consumed roughly 8 % of the total energy (i.e.electricity) in the United States with the prediction of growth to 50 % within a decade. The development of faster communication links is likely to contribute to the demand for faster computers, which is likely to increase energy consumption. In addition computer networks at present, require additional power-demanding equipment, such as servers, amplifiers, routers, filters, storage devices and communication links. These communication components consume significant amounts of energy. With the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, these communication components tend to increase and hence energy efficiency is an important issue.
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