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Energy consumption is a critical design issue in real-time systems, especially in battery-operated systems. Maintaining high performance, while extending the battery life between charges is an interesting challenge for system designers. Dynamic Voltage Scaling and Dynamic Frequency Scaling allow one to adjust supply voltage and processor frequency to adapt to the workload demand for better energy management. Usually, higher processor voltage and frequency leads to higher system throughput while energy reduction can be obtained using lower voltage and frequency. Many real-time scheduling algorithms have been developed recently to reduce energy consumption in the portable devices that use voltage scalable processors.
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