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Sleep scheduling is a widely used mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to reduce the energy consumption since it can save the energy wastage caused by the idle listening state. In a traditional sleep scheduling, however, sensors have to start up numerous times in a period, and thus consume extra energy due to the state transitions. The objective of this paper is to design an energy efficient sleep scheduling for low data-rate WSNs, where sensors not only consume different amounts of energy in different states (transmit, receive, idle and sleep), but also consume energy for state transitions. The paper uses TDMA as the MAC layer protocol, because it has the advantages of avoiding collisions, idle listening and overhearing.
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