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Routing is a challenging task in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), mainly because of the dynamic nature of the wireless medium and the mobility of the wireless nodes leading to frequent disconnection of routes. In many time-critical and high reliability demanding applications, such as disaster response, the network has to perform proactive routing to ensure application-tolerable delay for information delivery. However, limitations on the available energy in the battery-powered mobile nodes compound the routing problem. Proactive routing protocols, which extend the traditional table-driven routing techniques found in the wired networks, can be very expensive in terms of energy consumption.
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