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Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network consists of base station and hundreds to thousands of small sensor nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Each sensor collects data from the monitored area and routes data back to the base station or sink. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. A primary goal in the design of wireless sensor networks is its lifetime maximization, constrained by the energy capacity of batteries. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue.
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