Energy Storage in Datacenters: What, Where, and How Much?

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Executive Summary

Energy storage - in the form of UPS units - in a datacenter has been primarily used to fail-over to diesel generators upon power outages. There has been recent interest in using these Energy Storage Devices (ESDs) for Demand-Response (DR) to either shift peak demand away from high tariff periods, or to shave demand allowing aggressive under-provisioning of the power infrastructure. All such prior work has only considered a single/specific type of ESD (typically rechargeable lead-acid batteries), and has only employed them at a single level of the power delivery network. Continuing technological advances have provided one a plethora of competitive ESD options ranging from ultra-capacitors, to different kinds of batteries, flywheels and even compressed air-based storage.

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