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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have received tremendous attention in recent years because of the development of sensor devices, as well as wireless communication technologies. WSNs make it easier to monitor and control physical environments from remote locations and present many significant advantages over wired sensor networks for a variety of civilian and military applications. A WSN is usually randomly deployed in inaccessible terrains, disaster areas, or polluted environments, where battery replacement or recharge is difficult or even impossible to be performed. For this reason, network lifetime is of crucial importance to a WSN. To prolong network lifetime, efficient utilization of energy is considered with highest priority.
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