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The main source of the problem in Mobile handover is the latency and packet loss introduced by the lengthy registration processes. The registration messages must traverse all the way to the Home Agent (HA) and back. In addition, the packets sent by the Corresponding Node (CNs) are lost until they receive the Binding Update (BU) indicating the new Care-of-Address (nCoA) of the Mobile Node (MN). To reduce the number of lost packets during this time, the MN can request the old Access Router (oAR) to forward all its incoming packets to the new Access Router (nAR) Mobile IP handovers can be improved through link layer information to reduce packet loss during handovers.
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