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Broadcasting is the most frequently used operation in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) for the dissemination of data and control messages in many applications. Usually, a network backbone is constructed for efficient broadcasting to avoid the broadcast storm problem caused by simple blind flooding, where only selected nodes, called forwarding nodes that form the virtual backbone, forward data to the entire network. In MANETs, the forwarding node set for broadcast is usually selected in a localized manner, where each node determines its own status of forwarding or non-forwarding based on local information.
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