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In this work, the authors use an extensive empirical database of errors induced by write, read, and erase operations to develop a comprehensive understanding of the error behavior of flash memories. Error characterization of MLC and SLC flash is given on the block, page, and bit level. Based on the error characterization in MLC flash, they propose an error-correcting scheme which outperforms the conventional BCH code. Thry compare several schemes which use an MLC block as an SLC block. Finally, an implementation of two-write WOM-codes in SLC flash is given as well as the BER for the first and second write.
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