Date Added: Sep 2009
With advances in energy harvesting techniques, it is now feasible to build Sustainable Sensor Networks (SSN) to support long-term applications. Unlike battery-powered sensor networks, the objective of sustainable sensor networks is to effectively utilize a continuous stream of ambient energy. Instead of pushing the limits of energy conservation, the authors are aiming at energy-synchronized designs1 to keep energy supplies and demands in balance. Specifically, this paper presents the Energy Synchronized Communication (ESC) as a transparent middleware between the network layer and data link layer that controls the amount and timing of RF activity at receiving nodes. In this paper, they first derive a delay model for cross-traffic at individual nodes, which reveals an interesting stair effect in low-duty-cycle networks.