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Some prior studies proposed the use of Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) for indoor localization. The PDR system does not require a beacon-based infrastructure, in which a small number of sensors are put on the pedestrian. These sensors (such as G-sensor and Gyro) are used to estimate the distance and direction that the user traveled. The PDR approach can be generally categorized into two types: foot-mounted and waistmounted. In general, the foot-mounted system can get accurate step length, but perform poorly in estimated heading direction.
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