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Because of an overriding focus on policy and political talk, rather than the underlying social and economic phenomena, scholars typically underestimate the importance of underlying demographics and labor market dynamics on immigration politics in Europe. Despite rhetoric about "Fortress Europe" and fears of "Floods" to richer nations, flows have generally been demand driven, and have therefore been drawn by European nations with the most open and informal labor markets - such as Britain, Ireland, Italy and Spain - rather than more highly regulated welfare states such as Denmark. They are also more likely to be circular and temporary than one way immigration.
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