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The authors propose M-Courses (Monitoring Courses), a novel solution to localize events in an underwater wireless sensor network. These networks consist of surface gateways and relay nodes. GPS can localize the position of surface gateways which can then distribute their locations through the network using acoustic modems. Relay nodes are deployed to remain static but due to water currents, floating, and the untethered nature of the nodes, they often suffer from frequent drifting which can result in a deployed network suffering link failures. In this paper, they developed a novel concept of an underwater alarming system using a cyclic graph model.
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