Date Added: Dec 2010
Blumer (1962) regarded the 'Many possibilities of uncertainty as inherent to the process of joint action.' Joint action reflects the efforts of participants to work out the line of action in light of what they observe each other doing. Leadership appears to be approached from two fundamental perspectives: an organizational perspective (the influence that is exercised to change the direction of the organization), and an individual task perspective (the influence that is directed at changing the work behavior of an individual). In this paper, it is suggested that the symbolic interaction of perspective integrates the two fundamental perspectives in that both perspectives require meaningful, reflexive integration and meaning, group membership, organizational role and experience.