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Exact Expression and a Simple Tight Upper Bound for the SER of Odd CAP/QAM Constellation

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Executive Summary

In the transmission of digital information over a communication channel, the modulator is the device which maps the digital information into analog waveforms that matches the characteristics of the channel. These waveforms may differ in either amplitude or in phase or in frequency, or some combination of two or more signal parameters. Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is one of the most popular modulation techniques in which two different symbols of information are impressed simultaneously on two quadrature carriers. Several QAM families of signal constellations have been proposed in the literature

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