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Clock synchronization is critical for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) due to the need of inter-node coordination and collaborative information processing. Although many message passing protocols can achieve satisfactory clock synchronization accuracy, they incur prohibitively high overhead when the network scales to more than tens of nodes. An alternative approach is to take advantage of the global time reference induced by existing infrastructures including GPS, timekeeping radio stations, or power grid. However, high power consumption and geographic constraints present them from being widely adopted in WSNs.
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