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The radio spectrum is among the most heavily regulated and expensive natural resources around the world. In Europe, the 3G spectrum auction yielded 35 billion dollars in England and 46 billion in Germany. The question is whether spectrum is really this scarce. Although almost all spectrums suitable for wireless communications has been allocated, preliminary studies and general observations indicate that much of the radio spectrum is not in use for a significant amount of time, and at large numbers of locations. For instance, experiments conducted by Shared Spectrum Company indicate 62% percent of "White Space" (Unused Space) below the 3GHz band even in the most crowded area near downtown Washington, DC, where both governmental and commercial spectrum usage are intensive.
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