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The modern file system is still implemented in the kernel, and is statically linked with other kernel components. This architecture has brought performance and efficient integration with memory management. However kernel development is slow and modern storage systems must support an array of features, including distribution across a network, tagging, searching, de-duplication, check-summing, snap-shotting, file pre-allocation, real time I/O guarantees for media, and more. To move complex components into user-level however will require an efficient mechanism for handling page faulting and zero-copy caching, write ordering, synchronous flushes, interaction with the kernel page write-back thread, and secure shared memory.
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