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Heterogeneous Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks evolve as a possible solution to accommodate the exponential growth of mobile data. However, the heterogeneity introduces several design challenges such as increasing interference and mobility overhead. In this paper, the authors propose Extended Synchronization Signals (ESS) to eliminate the unavoidable Physical Cell Identity (PCI) confusion problem in dense heterogeneous LTE deployments. The ESS is also designed to reduce signaling overhead and handover delay. Their analysis shows a handover delay reduction of 65% can be realized.
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