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XML document markup is highly repetitive and therefore well compressible using dictionary-based methods such as DAGs or grammars. In the context of selectivity estimation, grammar-compressed trees were used before as synopsis for structural XPath queries. Here a fully-fledged index over such grammars is presented. The index allows to execute arbitrary tree algorithms with a slow-down that is comparable to the space improvement. More interestingly, certain algorithms execute much faster over the index (because no decompression occurs). E.g., for structural XPath count queries, evaluating over the index is faster than previous XPath implementations, often by two orders of magnitude.
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