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Space-time block coding has been continually evolving over the last decade. Beginning with the simple Alamouti code for 2 transmit antennas, the evolution of space-time coding theory has resulted in the development of sophisticated full-diversity codes from Cyclic Division Algebras (CDAs) for any number of transmit antennas. At one end are the rate-1 (a rate-m code transmits m complex information symbols in each channel use) STBCs that are multi-group decodable and have a relatively low Maximum Likelihood (ML)-decoding complexity while at the other end are rate-nt (for nt transmit antennas) full-diversity STBCs obtained from CDAs which have a very high ML-decoding complexity.
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