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Although there are two standard transport protocols, TCP and UDP, offering services in the Internet, the majority of the traffic over the Internet is TCP-based. TCP-based applications can react to packet losses; however, many performance problems have been recently observed in the Internet. To resolve these problems, several new TCP fast retransmit and fast recovery algorithms have been proposed. This paper surveys state-of-the-art fast retransmit and fast recovery mechanisms of TCP to address the lost packet problem, and presents a description of some useful algorithms, design issues, advantages, and disadvantages.
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