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Safety-critical feedback-control applications may suffer faults in the controlled plant as well as in the execution platform, i.e., the controller. Control theorists design the control laws to be robust with respect to the former kind of faults while assuming an idealized scenario for the latter. The execution platforms supporting modern real-time embedded systems, however, are distributed architectures made of heterogeneous components that may incur transient or permanent faults. Making the platform fault tolerant involves the introduction of design redundancy with obvious impact on the final cost.
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