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New protocols are being proposed to address problems with current data link and network layer protocols: scalability, security, manageability, and other limitations. Traditionally packet processing in high speed routers and switches was done with ASICs which offer high speed, low chip area and low power. But with inflexible custom hardware, the deployment of new protocols could happen only through equipment upgrades. While newer routers use more flexible network processors for data plane processing, due to power and area constraints lookups in forwarding tables are done with custom lookup modules. Thus most of the proposed protocols can only be deployed with equipment upgrades.
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