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This paper makes use of the fluid-based approach to model the throughput of TCP Veno flow over wired/wireless networks. A generalized formula is derived between Veno's throughput and its window evolution parameters, packet loss rate and round-trip time. Simulation experiments and real network measurements are conducted to validate the accuracy of this model. TCP is a connection-oriented, reliable and in-order transport protocol. It is known that the current legacy TCP, namely TCP Reno, suffers from performance degradation in the wireless networks due to the lack of differentiation between the random and the congestion losses.
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