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Ideally, the throughput of a Multipath TCP (MPTCP) connection should be as high as that of multiple disjoint single-path TCP flows. In reality, the throughput of MPTCP is far lower than expected. In this paper, the authors conduct an extensive simulation-based study on this phenomenon and the results indicate that a sub-flow experiencing high delay and loss affects the performance of other sub-flows, thus becoming the bottleneck of the MPTCP connection and significantly degrading the aggregate good-put. To tackle this problem, they propose Fountain code-based Multipath TCP (FMTCP), which effectively mitigates the negative impact of the heterogeneity of different paths.
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