Frequency Diversity Measurements at 2.4 GHz for Wireless Sensor Networks Deployed in Tunnels

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Executive Summary

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) which utilize IEEE 802.15.4 technology operate primarily in the 2.4 GHz globally compatible ISM band. However, the wireless propagation channel in this crowded band is notoriously variable and unpredictable, and it has a significant impact on the coverage range and quality of the radio links between the wireless nodes. Therefore, the use of Frequency Diversity (FD) has potential to ameliorate this situation. In this paper, the possible benefits of using FD in a tunnel environment have been quantified by performing accurate propagation measurements using modified and calibrated off-the-shelf 802.15.4 based sensor motes in the disused Aldwych underground railway tunnel.

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