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In this paper, the authors present two fully secure functional encryption schemes. The first result is a fully secure Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) scheme. Previous constructions of ABE were only proven to be selectively secure. They achieve full security by adapting the dual system encryption methodology recently introduced by Waters and previously leveraged to obtain fully secure IBE and HIBE systems. The primary challenge in applying dual system encryption to ABE is the richer structure of keys and ciphertexts. In an IBE or HIBE system, keys and ciphertexts are both associated with the same type of simple object: identities. In an ABE system, keys and ciphertexts are associated with more complex objects: attributes and access formulas.
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