G-STAR: Geometric STAteless Routing for 3-D Wireless Sensor Networks

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3-D aerial and underwater sensor networks have found various applications in natural habitat monitoring, weather/earthquake forecast, terrorist intrusion detection, and homeland security. The resource-constrained and dynamic nature of such networks has made the stateless routing protocol with only local information a preferable choice. However, most of the existing routing protocols require sensor nodes to either proactively maintain the state information or flood the network from time to time. The existing stateless geometric routing protocols either fail to work in 3-D environments or have tendency to produce lengthy paths. In this paper, the authors propose a novel routing protocol, namely Geometric STAteless Routing (G-STAR) for 3-D networks.