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The rapid spread of modern supply chains in developing countries is profoundly changing the way food is produced and traded. In this paper the authors examine the gender implications in modern supply chains. They conceptualize the various mechanisms through which women are directly affected, they review existing empirical evidence and add new survey-based evidence. Empirical findings from the own survey suggest that modern supply chains may be associated with reduced gender inequalities in rural areas. They find that women benefit more and more directly from large-scale estate production and agro-industrial processing, and the creation of employment in these modern agro-industries than from smallholder contract-farming.
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