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Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks consist of small battery driven devices which communicate wirelessly without using a pre-installed network infrastructure. Regulatory and physical constraints prevent nodes from reaching all other nodes in one single communication hop. Moreover, multi-hop communication can be useful when the total energy consumed should be kept low. The fact that signal attenuation - and with it the communicating nodes' energy consumption - grows more than linear with increasing communication range suggests that long distance communication should be performed with the help of a sequence of intermediate relay nodes.
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