Geographic Routing in d-Dimensional Spaces With Guaranteed Delivery and Low Stretch
Almost all geographic routing protocols have been designed for 2D. The authors present a novel geographic routing protocol, MDT, for 2D, 3D, and higher dimensions with these properties: guaranteed delivery for any connected graph of nodes and physical links, and low routing stretch from efficient forwarding of packets at local minima. MDT is the first geographic routing protocol that provides guaranteed delivery in 3D as well as 2D. (This property holds for node locations specified by accurate, inaccurate, or arbitrary coordinates.) The MDT protocol suite includes a packet forwarding protocol together with protocols for nodes to construct and maintain a distributed MDT graph for routing.