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This paper presents GKMPAN, an efficient and scalable group rekeying protocol for secure multicast in ad hoc networks. Their protocol exploits the property of ad hoc networks that each member of a group is both a host and a router, and distributes the group key to member nodes via a secure hop-by-hop propagation scheme. A probabilistic scheme based on pre-deployed symmetric keys is used for implementing secure channels between members for group key distribution. GKMPAN also includes a novel distributed scheme for efficiently updating the pre-deployed keys.
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