GPS-Less Localization Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Networks
The problem of underwater positioning is increasingly crucial due to the emerging importance of sub-sea activities. Knowledge of node location is essential for many applications for which sensor networks can be used. At the surface, positioning problems have been resolved by the extended use of GPS, which is straightforward and effective. Unfortunately, using GPS in the sub-sea environment is impossible and positioning requires the use of special systems. One of the major challenges in the Underwater Acoustic Networks (UANs) area of research is the development of a networking protocol that can cope with the management of a dynamic sub-sea network.