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Due to unique characteristics of sensor nodes, choosing energy-efficient modulation scheme with low-complexity implementation (referred to as green modulation) is a critical factor in the physical layer of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This paper presents (to the best of the authors' knowledge) the first in-depth analysis of energy efficiency of various modulation schemes using realistic models in IEEE 802.15.4 standard and present state-of-the art technology, to find the best scheme in a proactive WSN over Rayleigh and Rician flat-fading channel models with path-loss. For this purpose, the authors describe the system model according to a pre-determined time-based process in practical sensor nodes.
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