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In wireless Body Area Networks (BANs), communicating nodes are present near, directly on, or inside the body. Designing high-performance BAN systems is challenging due to competing goals of high capacity, minimal interference, robustness, and low power consumption. Since the body forms an integral part of the communications channel and near-field environment of the antennas, traditional antenna design specifications may no longer apply, complicating the antenna design problem, but also opening new research opportunities. One approach for characterizing BAN propagation is to model or measure the channel in realistic environments, where body propagation, antenna characteristics, and scattering from nearby objects are all lumped into the channel, leading to site- and antenna-specific descriptions.
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