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In the open access spectrum paradigm, the dynamics of the available spectrum heterogeneity due to the geographical location of various cognitive radio/Secondary Users (SUs) and Primary Users (PUs) prevent the assignment of a single common control channel to every SU. Thus, depending on channel availability, SUs are forced to form clusters to solve the problem of control channel assignment. However, the sudden appearance of a PU may lead to loss of intra-cluster or inter-cluster connectivity among SUs. This problem can be resolved by improving the cluster formation process and selecting suitable gateway nodes for inter-cluster coordination.
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