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The hidden-node problem has been shown to be a major source of Quality-of-Service (QoS) degradation in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) due to factors such as the limited communication range of sensor nodes, link asymmetry and the characteristics of the physical environment. In wireless contention-based Medium Access Control protocols, if two nodes that are not visible to each other transmit to a third node that is visible to the formers, there will be a collision - usually called hidden-node or blind collision. This problem greatly affects network throughput, energy-efficiency and message transfer delays, which might be particularly dramatic in large-scale WSNs.
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