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Conventional dynamic voltage and frequency scaling techniques use high CPU utilization as a predictor for user dissatisfaction, to which they react by increasing CPU frequency. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that for many interactive applications, perceived performance is highly-dependent upon the particular user and application, and is not linearly related to CPU utilization. This paper reveals an opportunity for reducing power consumption. They propose HAPPE (Human and Application driven frequency scaling for Processor Power Efficiency), an adaptive user-and-application-aware dynamic CPU frequency scaling technique. HAPPE continuously adapts processor frequency and voltage to the learned performance requirement of the current user and application. Adaptation to user requirements is quick and requires minimal effort from the user (typically a handful of key strokes).
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