Hash Combiners for Second Pre-Image Resistance, Target Collision Resistance and Pre-Image Resistance have Long Output

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A (k; l) hash-function combiner for property P is a construction that, given access to l hash functions, yields a single cryptographic hash function which has property P as long as at least k out of the l hash functions have that property. Hash function combiners are used to hedge against the failure of one or more of the individual components. One example of the application of hash function combiners are the previous versions of the TLS and SSL protocols.