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The proliferation of internet-connected mobile devices will continue to drive growth in data traffic in an exponential fashion, forcing network operators to dramatically increase the capacity of their networks. To do this cost-effectively, a paradigm shift in cellular network infrastructure deployment is occurring away from traditional (expensive) high-power tower-mounted base stations and towards heterogeneous elements. Examples of heterogeneous elements include microcells, picocells, femtocells, and distributed antenna systems (remote radio heads), which are distinguished by their transmit powers/coverage areas, physical size, backhaul, and propagation characteristics.
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