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The smart grid is the new generation of electricity grid that can efficiently utilize new distributed sources of energy (e.g., harvested renewable energy), and allow for dynamic electricity price. In this paper, the authors investigate the cost minimization problem for an end-user, such as a home, community, or a business, which is equipped with renewable energy devices when electrical appliances allow different levels of delay tolerance. The varying price of electricity presents an opportunity to reduce the electricity bill from an end-user's point of view by leveraging the flexibility to schedule operations of various appliances and HVAC systems.
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