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Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) have applications in several areas of computer security. One drawback of HMMs is the selection of appropriate model parameters, which is often ad hoc or requires domain-specific knowledge. While algorithms exist to find local optima for some parameters, the number of states must always be specified and directly impacts the accuracy and generality of the model. In addition, domain knowledge is not always available or may be based on assumptions that prove incorrect or sub-optimal.
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